Medical imaging has revolutionized the way doctors diagnose and treat patients. It allows them to detect diseases in their early stages, leading to better patient outcomes and more effective treatments. Advanced medical imaging techniques enable doctors to make accurate, evidence-based decisions regarding patient care, resulting in improved recovery outcomes and a decrease in mortality and morbidity. Medical imaging is a health science that involves the use of various imaging technologies such as X-ray radiography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), endoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), thermography, medical photography, electrical source imaging (ESI), digital mammography, tactile imaging, magnetic source imaging (MSI), optical medical imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT).
The aim of these techniques is to identify and describe the patient's experience, perception, understanding and meaning when undergoing diagnostic imaging. Today, diagnostic imaging is an essential tool for diagnosing a wide range of medical conditions such as traumatic diseases, many types of cancerous diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and many other medical conditions. 3D ultrasound has an advantage in diagnosing disorders and producing 3D images that guide invasive therapy. Tomography is being replaced by advanced imaging techniques such as computed tomography or computerized axial tomography (CT).
Deep tissue images collect and interpret multiple sources of information from ultrasounds to CT scans over time, presenting enormous challenges for data processing. The data is reconstructed and recorded, and a computer program produces 3D images of the target part of the body. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is no longer sensitive in providing high-resolution images by distributing substances, except hydrogen. Mikhail Shapiro from the California Institute of Technology pioneered a new technique for imaging deep tissues to observe cellular functions deep in the body.
However, there are still more frontiers ahead and more opportunities to use images to revolutionize medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very expensive, low in sensitivity and requires a long time for scanning and processing compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. All of the diagnostic imaging procedures included in this review are non-invasive or minimally invasive. An attached computer system converts the spinning (signal) echoes of hydrogen ions into images after several “changes” and “working”.
Recent neuroimaging techniques such as high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging can investigate myeloarchitectural patterns in the cortex of the human brain. In this technology, X-rays are produced from different angles that are eventually processed by computers to create tomographic images.